11. Goodwill

EUR million 2012 2011
Historical cost, Jan 1 110.1 119.8
Translation differences -0.8 1.5
Historical cost, Dec 31 109.3 110.1

Accumulated impairment, Jan 1 21.4 31.2
Translation differences -0.8 1.5
Accumulated impairment, Dec 31 20.7 21.4

Net book value, Dec 31 88.6 88.6

Goodwill is not amortized but is tested at least annually for impairment.

Goodwill impairment test in cash-generating units

Goodwill allocated to cash-generating units:

EUR million 2012 2011
Home 73.8 73.8
Garden 14.8 14.8
Total 88.6 88.6

Goodwill from acquisitions is allocated to Cash Generating Units (CGU). The business areas, which form the CGUs, are Home and Garden. The recoverable amounts from CGUs are determined with value in use method, using five-year discounted cash flow projections, based on strategic plans approved by management. Cash flows for the period extending over the planning period are calculated using the terminal value method. The discount rate is the weighted average post-tax cost of capital (WACC) as defined by Fiskars. The components of the WACC are risk-free rate, market risk premium, company-specific risk premium, industry specific equity beta, cost of debt and debt to equity ratio. On the basis of the impairment calculations made, there has been no need for impairment of goodwill for any CGU for the period ended 31 December 2012.

Key parameters applied in impairment testing

% 2012 2011
Increase in net sales on average 1.8 1.8
Steady growth rate in projecting terminal value 2.5 2.5
Discount rate, pre-tax 8.2 6.9

The increases in net sales, used in impairment testings, are on average more moderate than strategic plans for the planning period. The EBIT used in impairment testing is the CGU's actual three previous years average EBIT-% of sales. This is consistently used for all periods in the five year discounted cash flow projections.

Sensitivity analysis

Sensitivity analyses have been carried out for the valuation of each CGU by making downside scenarios for key parameters. The management views that no reasonably possible change in any of the key parameters would lead to impairment as the recoverable amounts exceed the carrying amounts considerably.